Cultural explanations

  1. Man-nature orientation: not to overcome the nature, fate, fortune, yuan (fateful coincidence, destiny, karma)

- lower expectations, less dissatisfied, “bad luck”, reluctant to complain or feedback

  1. Man-to-himself orientation

- Self abasement—modesty, humility, obedient, passive; pragmatic, flexible—not like active aggressive sale - less dogmatic, impatient—enjoy service, prefer a short queue

  1. Relational orientation

- respect for authority—influenced by opinion leaders - Interdependence: reciprocity, continuity, guanxi - Face - Group orientation: cold, low trust towards strangers - Implications: elaborate gift-giving culture—value, packing; informal channels of communications and high contact rate—viral marketing; brand consciousness, group influence in consumption; mass advertising less effective; importance of family

  1. Time dimension

- Past-time orientation: ancestor worship, family tradition, conservative, risk averse, history-minded - Continuity: - Implications—brand loyalty

  1. Activity orientation: Li, doctrine of mean, moral self control, character cultivation

- Reluctant to complain, not to take public stands; slow to accept new fashions , technology, innovative marketing